13 Июля 2020 | понедельник | 01:02

Energy complex of the Middle Urals: from a reactor on fast neutrons up to energy saving.

Декабря 18, 2009

Sverdlovsk Region has always been and remains to be the energy surplus region. With total installed capacity of regional objects generation is 9000 MW, electrical load of Sverdlovsk powersystem does not exceed 7000 MW. But long-term prospects of growth of energy consumption by enterprises of ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, builders, utilities require advanced development of generation and networks. The largest investment projects are in this sphere – construction of reactor BN-800 on the Beloyarsk atomic power station and PGU-410 MW with the turbine of 4-th generation on Sredneuralskaya TPP.

Strategy and Practice

« In the end of 90’s – the beginning of 2000th years there were no large generating or network object constructed- says Yuri Shevelev, the Minister of Energy and Utilities of ther Sverdlovsk region. Minimum tariffs for electricity made it possible to strengthen the foundations of the Urals industry - giants ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, machine-building enterprises, housing construction, but reduced investment opportunities of the energy sector itself.

By 2005, for professionals it became clear that a major adjustment and modernization of power Sverdlovsk region is necessary. " Chubais‘s Cross " - the growing consumer pressure, with a deficit of power - did not threaten the region, we had problems of another kind: “ industry faced the task of widening "bottlenecks”. Loading was distributed on a power supply system non-uniformly: it has fallen in one units and has increased in others – where the new enterprises and manufactures were under construction, – Jury Shevelev testifies.

In 2006, the regional government approved strategic policy document: "The main directions of development of the energy complex in the Sverdlovsk region till 2015.” Summarizing the main projects in the metallurgical industry (which is more than half of regional consumption of electric power), plans for construction and commissioning of housing complexes power engineering specialist calculated the energy rate and volume growth loads.

Electric loading of the Sverdlovsk power supply system on a boundary of centuries has decreased from 7000 МВт up to 6000 МВт, but in the middle of 2008 has increased up to 7000 МВт again. It was counted up, that for a covering of growing loading by 2015 it is necessary to enter 5000 МВт additional capacity, and till 2020 plus to it is still nearby 4000 МВт, in parallel deducing from operation aging power units.

Regeneration of generation

One of the most significant projects on development of Sverdlovsk generation – erection of PGU-410 MW on Sredneuralskaya TPP (it is included in Open Society "WGC-5 Enel"). Such a large power objects were not entered on the territory of the Sverdlovsk region nearly 30 years. Start-up of PGU-410 is planned at the end of 2010. On a building sitefully completed works on installation of: steel structures, wall panels and roof of buildings of the gas and steam turbines, block control panel and electrical equipment.

By now finalized installation of metal building network power pumps, concreting the foundation of a gas turbine. Continues the basic installation of power equipment: was installed chimney (65m) and 320 tons of structural boiler. The construction of PGU-410 at Sredneuralskaya TPP is performed on 56%.

Figure 1. The main building of PGU-410 at Sredneuralskaya TPP

Up to the end of October, 2009 on СуГРЭС delivery of all accessories of the steam turbine and the generator (produced by Skoda Power, Czechia) is expected; in November – gas turbine facility with the generator (produced by General Electric, the USA). It will be the first gas turbine of 4-th generation in a power supply system of the Sverdlovsk region.

If the best Soviet power units 1960-70-х years had EFFICIENCY of 40 % ,the new power unit (item #12) Sreneuralsk TPP will have EFFICIENCY more than 57 % - this will reduct consumption of fuel at preservation of cleanliness of air and sources of water supply », – says Boris Tarasov, director of Sredneuralskaja TPP (Open Society « WGC-5 Enel»)

In the Sverdlovsk region proceeds construction of the power unit with a reactor on fast neutrons BN-800 (Beloyarsk NPP-2): the project of a world scale opening access to new resource base of nuclear power stations – to uranium-238. The construction of the BN-800 began in 1983, completion is scheduled for 2012. A capital intensity is more than 65,5 billion rbls. Within the limits of construction in 2008 were mastered 12,5 billion rbls. The Economic crisis didn’t not change and did not move aside terms of input of BN-800. According to 2 Oleg Sarajev, the project manager of Beloyarsk’s NPP-2 construction, the schedule of construction, erection and commissioning works in 2009 will be sustained.

And nevertheless, the new economic reality caused by a financial crisis which has begun in 2008, has affected on revision of separate investment plans. At Serovskaya TPP (included in OAO "WGC-2") in 2012 we expected to introduce two CCGT of 300 MW, i.e. 600 MW of replacement power. In 2009, OGK-2 appealed to the Ministry of Energy of Russia with a proposal to change the investment program. Now Serovskaya Power Plant is planning to build only one unit of 300 MW for a period of commissioning by 2015. The proposal has not yet received final approval.

Among the power engineering specialist it is not the first year of discussing the construction of 11-th power block of Reftinskaya power plant - Europe's largest coal plant (3800 MW, it is a subsidiary of ENEL WGC-5 "), located in the Sverdlovsk region. Obviously, crisis will finally transfer this project,far from being indisputable from the point of view of safety, in the category of unrealizable. But also without it Reftinskaya TPP was, and in foreseeable prospect remains to be the largest power station in the middle Urals.During the last years here is being implemented a large-scale investment program for reconstruction and modernization.

The concept of modernization and reconstruction of the station is based on two principles, - says deputy chief engineer for investment and re-equipment - chief of the technical re-equipment and reconstruction of the Reftinskaya TPP Anatoly Mingalev.On the one hand, it is the repairs, called to minimize losses because of refusals, decrease in technical and economic parameters of the equipment, deterioration of ecological parameters. On the other – measures to ensure the stable operation of the power plant in the long term.

Fig. 2. Reftinskaya TPP (State District Power Plant) - the largest power station of the Sverdlovsk region.

In 2010, the unit number 5 of Reftinskaya TPP will be stopped for repairs. For it we have already received a new generator’s stator (produced by Kharkiv plant "Electrotyazhmash"), on 70 % the new turbine (the manufacturer – Ural company " Teploenergoservis") is made. The rotor of the generator will not be changed – it was modernized two years ago. At preservation of the same volumes of steam on a boiler (950 t / h), the new turbine will be more powerful on 25 MW. After the reconstruction capacity of the power unit may reach 333 MW.

By the request of the European banks, who credit the project, environmental indicators of updated unit number 5 should conform to the standards of the European Union. At the boiler will be installed saving burner upgrades, allowing to bring the emissions of NOx up to 200 mg / m3

The electro filters in block number 5 will be replaced by tubular dust collector- so it will reduce emissions of ash in times. There will also be replaced flue-gas pumps. The final stage of reconstruction of the fifth unit will be a full-scale introduction of automated process control system needed to manage and control modes of the boiler and the primary frequency control current (a requirement of the System Operator). The reconstruction will provide work of unit number 5 with improved technical and economic performance for 25 years.

In the coming years in the territory of the Sverdlovsk region should appear completely new thermal power plants. The largest company of non-ferrous metallurgy - "UMMC-Holding” decides to build a coal plant with installed capacity of 1000 MW. Industrial place for this power facilitiy, which will be put into operation by 2014, has been already chosen - town Staroutkinsk.

Finally, another direction of development of the regional generation is the construction of thermal power plants at the local fuel resources - peat.

In the structure of the fuel and energy balance of the Sverdlovsk region, coal accounts for 27%, gas - 49%, products of fuel (mainly oil) - 20%, blast furnace gas - 3% and other fuels - 1%. Total fuel consumption of the Sverdlovsk region in 2008 amounted to 47 million tce . In this case the structure of fuel consumption in thermal power plants, coal is 53%, gas - 46%, oil - 1%. Virtually all the coal in the Central Urals is long-haul. Peat is the main energy source, which the Sverdlovsk region has in a significant amount.

Estimated reserves of peat more than 3 billion tons, the balance - 1.6 billion tons. Investment potential of peat’s involvement in the energy of the Sverdlovsk region - more than 1 billion euros. Including 200 million euros needed for the development of deposits, 500 million euros - for the construction of generating capacity and 300 million euros - for the construction of the complex processing on peat.

Government of Sverdlovsk Region signed an order for a program of integrated development and use of peat resources in the region. As the first stage therу was considered a pilot project of 50 MW thermal power plant on peat from Basyanovsk deposits in the vicinity of Nijnaya Salda. Already developed predTEO. Approximate volume of investments - 90 million euros. To participate in this project was invited the company “Fortum"- owner of several generating assets in Chelyabinsk and Tyumen regions.

Web in nets tariff

Problems of development of grid complex are mainly due to the fact that electrical networks belong to companies with state participation in the authorized capital. Investment component is laid in the rates and fees for technical adherence. In the present crisis conditions to realize the Sverdlovsk Region entire program of network building, we need to dramatically increase rates and charges for connection to networks. But in fact, there is adjusting of the volume and rescheduling of input power facilities.

According to the Minister of Energy and Utilities of the Sverdlovsk region Yuri Shevelev, updating the regional program of the grid construction is regular: "This is a complicated process, because on the one hand - we cannot stop building, and on the other – to download the consumer with the sharp increase of tariffs. We must look for balance. Funding and adjustment programs depend on the limiting value of the tariff in 2010.

In 2009, FGC is investing in the development of grid complex of the Sverdlovsk region 3 billion rubles. MRSC of Urals Investment plan in the Sverdlovsk region in 2009 = 1.348 billion rubles.

Until the end of 2008 in the Sverdlovsk region were three 500 kV substation: "South", "BAZ", "Tagil” and 500 kV switchyard of Reftinskaya TPP. In December 2008, completed the construction of 500 kV switchyard and installed the first group of power transformators 501 MVA at substation 500 kV "Emelino”. In May 2009 at the that site introduced a second group of autotransformators 501 MVA and 180 MVA shunt reactor. Substation "Emelino” provides with electricity Pervouralsk New Pipe and Nizhneserginski hardware-metallurgical plants.

Fig. 3. Substation 500 kV "Emelino”.

In the Sverdlovsk region continues building of 500 kV high-voltage line "Severnaya-BAZ”. 500 kV high-voltage line were not being built in the Middle Urals more than 20 years (in the 80 years,were built 500 kV "Tagil-BAZ" and "Reftinskaya GRES - Tyumen). Input high-voltage line 500 кВ "Northern-bases" will increase reliability of a network and will allow to unload Serovo-Bogoslovskii node of the Sverdlovsk power supply system – one of most power-hungryх and problematic areas in the United Energy System of the Urals. Now in case of emergency switching-off operating high-voltage line is required to input restriction of loading for all consumers . It constrains development of such large industrial enterprises, Aluminum Plant, Serov Ferroalloy Plant, Bogoslovsk mine, and also social sector of Serov, Krasnoturyinsk,Karpinsk, Severouralsk.

In June, 2009, before the summit of the Shanghai organization of cooperation (SCO), in Ekaterinburg took place a start-up of new substation 110 kV "Aviatoir" . According to the chairman of the Government of theSverdlovsk region Victor Koksharov, this substation opens good prospects for development of the international airport Koltsovo, an adjoining apartment complex, construction of hotel and other objects. Substation " Aviator" is equipped with 110 kV gas-insulated circuit breakers, disconnectors remote control, two power transformers 40 MVA. For the construction of the substation, located in a swampy area, the ground level was lifted on 2 meters – that operation required more than 100 thousand tons of an imported rocky ground.

Fig. 4. Substation 110 kV "Aviator".

In December 2008, JSC "MRSC of Urals" started construction of substation 220 kV "Anna", intended for electricity for Construction of the fifth production line OAO Sukholozhskcement "- one of the largest producers of construction materials in the Urals.By now on the substation has been installed almost all metal construction and the basic power equipment. Putting into operation is scheduled on the end of 2009, the investment capacity of the project - more than 1 billion rubles.

In This year will also be completed the reconstruction of HVL 110 kV "Tura - Kvarz" with its total length equal to 20 km. Estimated project cost is 85 million rubles. The new line will provide electricity to V. Tura and Lesnoy, as well as enterprise Elektrokhimpribor. This line will also provide transit of power in the most scarce Serovo-Bogoslovskii node of the Sverdlovsk power system.

Previously, "MRSC of Urals" announced its plans to implement in 2009 the construction of substation 110 kV "Belogorie with HVL 110 kV" Chernoistochinsk - Belogorie ", which should provide electricity ski complex " White Mountain ", industrial and agricultural consumers, boilers settlements Uralec, Visiom, Ust-Utka. A number of works on this site has already been completed, but the end of construction is postponed from 2009 to 2010.

Energy saving is the state problem

The share of energy-intensive industries (metallurgy, fuel and energy, construction) in the industrial structure of the Sverdlovsk region reaches 70% (average for Russia - 54,6%). According to experts, the Sverdlovsk region can save up to 48% of energy, ie, at the current level of consumption - about 23 million tce year. The main potential is concentrated in industry and construction - about 12 million tce, utilities - about 6 million tce in power - 5 million tce. To solve this global problem, under the personal supervision of the Sverdlovsk Region Governor Eduard Rossel in the Middle Urals is being implemented a package of measures to reduce the cost of heat and energy resources, improve the efficiency of their use.

Implementation of the regional state program "Energy saving" has already helped to reduce the energy intensity of gross regional product (GRP) on 36,5%. In the 2000's high rates of industrial production were in line with a slight increase in power consumption. Thus, for every percentage of increase in gross regional product growth in fuel consumption was in average less than 0.3%. In general, in the area, reduction of energy consumption in 2000-2007 reached 76 million tce.

In 2009, was launched a major program at the expense of attracted investment resources Vneshekonombank. This project,with the volume of 4,8 billion rubles is The result of an agreement between the Government of Sverdlovsk region, the company Itera and Vnesheconombank, involves the construction and upgrading of municipal and district boiler. It is planned to build 233 modern boilers, upgrade existing, as well as put into operation the installations of combined heat and power. These measures will significantly increase the potential of energy savings. Power of new boilers - about 400 MW, combined plants - 60 MW. Generally in the area is planned to run more than 60 cogeneration plants with total capacity up to 100 MW. At the same time we will develop small hydropower: it is planned to construct 15 micro hydroelectric power plants with total installed capacity up to 30 MW.

In the Sverdlovsk region is being realized “transfer program” of boilers on local fuels. From 2005 to 2008 in 19 municipalities was reconstructed and transferred into local and alternative fuels more than 70 boilers. The average payback period - 2-3 years.

In February 2009 was signed an agreement between the Government of the region, the Ministry of Environment, Nuclear Safety of the Federal Republic of Germany, the Ministry of Energy of Russia and company Siemens. The project involves a number of activities under the general title: "Ekaterinburg - power city": reorganization of public buildings, repair of heat and water networks. Work on the rehabilitation is conducted in the Sverdlovsk region not for the first year and has already proved its high efficiency. Heat losses on some social objects has been reduced on 15 - 20%.

Energy-saving technologies will be widely used in building up of the largest Yekaterinburg’s district - "Academic". An agreement was reached between the directorate Renova-Stroygroup "and the Institute of Energy, under which will be undertaken work to improve the energy efficiency of housing, allowing even at the stage of design and construction provide a minimum heat loss and reduce the load on the network. Main activities: the use of thermal imagers to find the discard of heating, installation of devices for measuring and controlling the quantity of heat supply, dual-rate counters. By the way, in accordance with the regional program we have installed units for the calculation of heat and electricity in all regional budgetary institutions.

Fig.5 Energy-saving technologies will be widely used in building up of the largest Yekaterinburg’s district - "Academic”

It is expected that as a result of a complex energy-saving measures by 2015 the cost of heating of the housing sector in the Sverdlovsk region will be reduced in 2 times.

Government, Ministry of Energy and Utilities Sverdlovsk region appealed to the Ministry of Economic Development of Russia, Ministry of Energy, Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Trade and Industry with a number of initiatives to encourage energy saving projects. In particular, it is proposed to exempt from income tax investments in energy conservation projects, to adopt rules establishing the accelerated depreciation of energy saving equipment, to create a federal and territorial budgetary funds energy efficiency and develop procedures and mechanisms for their financing.

According to the Minister of Energy and Utilities Sverdlovsk Oblast Yuri Shevelev, "Ural Federal District, which includes our region - the territory, which has a high potential for energy efficiency. With a high proportion of energy intensive industries UrFD shows good momentum rate of decline in energy intensity. In 2003-2007 GG energy intensity of gross regional product of UFD decreased by 26,5%. For comparison, in the Central Region the figure was 8% in the North-West - 10,4%, the Far East - 12,8%. Adoption of the Federal Law "On energy conservation and improving energy efficiency and on its basis - regional regulations will accelerate the introduction of energy efficient technologies and further reduce energy intensity of Russia's economy."

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