13 Июля 2020 | понедельник | 01:32

From Vorkuta to Velikie Luki : an acute shortage turning into a surplus

Октября 19, 2010

North-West region of Russia as a whole is considered to be energy deficient, and aims to develop alternative sources of energy such as wind farms in the Kaliningrad region, and radical solutions of the issues of deficit by building nuclear power plants, for example, NPP-2 in the Leningrad region.

According to the strategy of development of the North-West region, the consumption of primary energy sources in the North-West Federal District in 2030 will exceed the level of 2008 up to 1,4 - 1,6 times. Production of primary energy sources will increase with more substantial rate (by 2030 the level of  2008 will be exceeded in 2,5 - 2,7 times), as the result Northwest Federal District will cease to be energy deficient in 2015 and by 2030 provision of region with the primary sources of energy will reach 114 - 128%.
Increase of production of primary energy sources in coming years will come at the expense of increasing oil and gas production in the Timan-Pechora province and thermal coal in the Komi Republic. LNG production at the Shtokman project will begin in 2017.
The final investment decision on the production of pipeline gas is planned to adopt in March 2011, the decision on LNG production - at the second stage - before the end of 2011. Gazprom Neft Shelf holds a license for geological exploration and production of gas and gas condensate at the Shtokman deposit.
February 5, 2010, taking into account changing market conditions, particularly in the LNG market, the Board of Directors of Shtokman Development AG decided to a separate out in a certain stage of the project's first phase the construction of launching complex for the supply of pipeline gas (offshore production complex, a pipeline to shore and installation of gas).
 St. Petersburg can be called the most progressive region in the Russian Federation in the field of power engineering. This year, TGC-1 and St. Petersburg authorities create a new infrastructure company - JSC «Heating network of St. Petersburg." The new company will exploit trunk and intra-thermal heating networks in the area of JSC "TGC-1" all over - from the source of thermal energy to the nodes of join-house heating and hot water. Currently, long-haul network was operated mainly by TGC-1, and intra by  SUE «Energy of St. Petersburg." In this case, SUE «TEK SPb" will continue to operate the boiler and heating system in the supply areas of the boiler.
Joint control of these networks will allow more efficient allocation of funds for repairs and reconstruction of heating systems, to control the delivery of thermal energy from the station to the consumer, and will also enhance the responsiveness of maintenance services to the reports of abnormal situations.
In addition, the JSC Heating network of St. Petersburg will perform an agent of TGC-1 "for the sale of heat energy in St. Petersburg and Leningrad region.
Oleg Trishkin chairman of the Committee on Energy of the Government of St. Petersburg called the Foundation of JSC «Heating network of St. Petersburg" a new stage in the development of Heat Distribution Complex City "and stressed the interest of the city government in implementing the project. 
"People have tried to solve The problem of transit networks in the previous 15 years, and with the advent of new leadership in TGC-1 and SUE “TEK St. Petersburg" - solved in six months "-said the head of the Committee on Energy.
"This is largely thanks to the practice of constructive engagement of our strategic shareholder - Gazprom - and the administration of St. Petersburg during the reconstruction of heat supply system of the Petrograd district - says General Director of JSC" TGC-1 "Boris Vainzikher. General Director of JSC "TGC-1" also notes that "a specialized heat network company will not only concentrate the responsibility for maintaining communications in the supply areas of our company, but will also use completely new instruments for financing the modernization of heating networks, which will significantly improve the quality of heat."
From May 1 to December 31, 2010 JSC «Heating network of St. Petersburg will provide communication’s service owned by JSC« TGC-1 "and SUE« Energy of St. Petersburg in the areas of heating CHP TGC-1. During this time, will be held on the procedures required for transmission of lines in the property profile of the enterprise, and from January 1, 2011 JSC «Heating network of St. Petersburg will have to operate as a single property and technology complex.
Nuclear power will receive further development in the district.
Sergei Myakov, Chairman of the Committee on Energy Sector and Utilities of Leningrad region said that the draft NPP-2 with pressurized water reactors of a better kind have to become a reliable source of electricity to St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region and other regions of the North-West Russia. "Construction of the plant is included in the program of Rosatom’s long-term activities for 2009-2015. The new station will be equipped with the new blocks VVER with 1170 MW capacity each. The first of these blocks should be introduced in 2013, "he says. - "In parallel with the construction of new nuclear power stations we will construct a new electric grid to transport power: the power lines of 330 kV and 750 kV switchgear.
 A separate scale issue of new construction - placing millions of tons of soil, extracted in the formation of pits of new units. Currently, the relevant committees of the Government of the Leningrad Region builders NPP-2  suggested to use the possibility of a specialized management company Waste Management (established by government order, Leningrad region), which can accept soils of up to 1.5 million cubic meters in compliance with necessary environmental requirements. Other options already associated with the prospect of building 3 and 4 units of Leningrad NPP-2 are worked out. Realization of nation-wide project to build NPP-2, worth hundreds of billions of rubles will not only provide the necessary orders to enterprises of construction and power engineering industries, but will also become the basic starting point of energy development in Northwest Russia.
In the town of nuclear scientists is planned to build additional housing, the creation of social infrastructure.
Currently, the construction of NPP-2 units is in accordance with the schedule of works at 22 facilities of Unit 1 and 8 facilities of Unit 2. At the construction site work five major contractors: CJSC "Concern" Titan-2 », JSC« NCM "(Northern Construction Management), JSC« Metrostroj », JSC« Trust Hydromontazh» and CJSC «EFESk», and more than thirty sub-contractors.
The number of personnel employed in the construction of replacement facilities is already over a thousand professionals. " A key event in November 2009 was the start of installation DLM (device for localization of melt). DLM - an additional safety measure of the station. The device was the first of large-sized products, which is encased in the foundation of the first power reactor NPP-2.
In the Leningrad region key events in the NPP-2 in 2010 will be: the willingness of the reactor unit’s building number 1 to install the polar crane; the end of construction of evaporative cooling tower number 1 and filling of the first concrete in the foundation slab of the reactor unit’s building №2. Currently, construction works are carried out on 51 objects (35- on the first unit, 16- on the second) . Number of employees at the site of Leningrad NPP-2 is more than 2000 people. Plan of the capital investment for 2010 is more than 26 billion rubles. The number of workers on site will be increased up to 3.5 thousand people. Commissioning of Unit 1 NPP-2 is scheduled for 2013. Timing of power unit № 2 can be extended for two years with respect to the original schedule - in 2016. 
Implementation of the second queue of the Baltic Pipeline System, gas pipelines of  "Nord Stream" and "Northern Tyumen Oblast - Torzhok, construction of offshore oil terminals in the cities Primorsk and Ust-Luga in the Leningrad region will be completed. Steps will be taken to ensure the energy independence of the Kaliningrad region through the construction of Baltic Nuclear Power Plant, commissioning the first unit of 1150 MW capacity is planned in 2016 and the second - in 2018.
Decreasing of the growth rate of consumption of primary energy sources in the whole district will occur mainly due to the potential of structural conservation. In 2012-2015. leading role in the growth of energy production will take development of production at the Shtokman gas condensate field. On the coast of the Barents Sea will be built liquefied petroleum gas plant, with a portion of the gas produced on the continental shelf of Arctic seas, to be submitted to the Unified Gas Supply System. Further development will be in nuclear and hydropower branches. In Leningrad region will end the construction of the new refinery plant. The region will transform from energy deficient in energy-surplus, also will be developed the export of energy resources in other areas of the country and for export, such as Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, the Baltic countries. In the area of energy conservation will prevail projects with a more comprehensive use of waste timber industry.
After 2015 will be continued active development of oil and gas fields of the continental shelf of Arctic seas and the development of energy transportation infrastructure in the region. If all goes according to plan, by 2030 the North-West Federal District will be a major energy-surplus region, carrying supplies, including transit, oil, natural gas, including LNG, and electricity in the energy deficient regions in the country and for export.
In addition, the North West of the country - one of the most well-peat resources is in Russia. According to experts reserves estimates 175.8 billion tones, but while this alternative energy resource lies in the "spare the trunk."
Alternative Energy
North-West region can be called advanced in an effort to use natural renewable energy sources. Thus, in the Kaliningrad region important direction - wind energy. According to Wind inventory, the average wind load in this area is not less than 10-12 m / s - this is enough wind power to operate wind turbines in the rated mode, in this case providing lighting for cottage settlements.
In the Murmansk region in the area of tidal and wave energy have been developed and implemented a totally unique pilot project - tidal wave power station with orthogonal powertrains - North TES. The project was developed by SRI of energy facilities. This will be a pilot industrial plant, which will test the latest innovative technologies and equipment for the construction of powerful tidal and wave –oriented power stations. Start of the North TES can be held in 2013. Plants using the energy of the sea are especially in the north-western region. 40 years ago in the Bay Sour Barents Sea to the Kola Peninsula was commissioned first in Russia's tidal power plant - experimental Kislogubskaya TES.
Building of Kislogubskaya TES, by the suggestion of Leo Bernstein (chief engineer of the project), was the world's first hydroelectric construction built by pontoon way (without bridges), allowing a third to cut the cost of TES.
In 2006 in Severodvinsk was made experimental metal floating power unit for  "Minor Mezenskaya TEC" with Orthogonal hydraulic unit. impeller diameter of this unit is 5 feet on a vertical shaft and a have design capacity = 1500 kW. RusHydro expects that technologies and constructions used on Kislogubskaya TES will be used in development of promising tidal power such as North PES (Murmansk Region, the Long Bay) and Mesen TES (Arkhangelsk Region, Mezen Bay, White Sea). April 14, 2010 during a conference on occupational safety and health in the energy sector (SAPE-2010) Russian Ministry of Energy held a presentation of departmental target program "Upgrading and improving the safety of hydroelectric plants, aimed at the modernization of Russian hydroelectric power station, taking into account development of local TESes.
The development of wind energy is certainly a promising direction. Sergei Myakov: "The government of Leningrad region considered a proposal JSC" Leningrad Wind Power Company to build a powerful regional wind power station 75 MW.
However, this idea has not yet received a real implementation, because its implementation requires a new regulatory framework at the federal level in the field of alternative energy. The fact is that the production of energy from wind farms now more expensive than conventional energy. In order to create a demand on this energy source by consumers, we have to create favorable conditions for its implementation at the FOREM (wholesale electricity market), and provide investors an opportunity to return on investment within a reasonable time.
Another important point is related with the fact that wind turbines produce irregular amount of energy. It depends on the presence and strength of the wind. Uninterruptible power supply can be provide by using wind turbines in combination with diesel power plants (DPP)
Enterprise “Elektrosfera” in Vsevolozhsk area has worked in the Leningrad region for many years. It manufactures equipment for wind turbines of small capacity.
If you look at the fuel balance of municipal and departmental boiler rooms operating in the Leningrad region, over the last three years, you will see a tendency of increasing the use of gas component, reducing the use of fuel oil and peat. Fuel oil use today is expensive, peat extraction is reduced..
Biofuels - peat, wood chips, firewood – is leverage to use in areas where it is a lot, because the costs of harvesting and transportation over long distances makes its price not competitive.
In recent years, has developed the production of pellets - wood pellets from sawdust. In the Russian market this biofuel still have little demand, and supplies are mostly abroad, in European countries.
Alternative energy will certainly be promoted due to the newly adopted regulations on energy efficiency and conservation. Energy companies are seriously thinking about buying electricity from small producers. For example JSC RKS-energy - Energy company, which has the status of a supplier of electricity in the Leningrad region, has taken the initiative to purchase surplus electricity from large companies that use their own sources of mostly as a backup power sources.
Overall, in seven affiliated branches of MRSC North-West in the autumn-winter season 2009-2010. was recorded in 1405 technological failures. The smallest number of violations noted in Kolenergo - 1,5%, Komienergo - 8% and Karelenergo - 9% of the total number of incidents. The most frequently recorded technological disturbances in the Pskovenergo - 35% and Novgorodenergo - 21% of the total number of incidents.
The main causes of violations of the equipment are still higher depreciation of fixed assets - 63.7% worked out the standard period of service, including 7,4% - two statutory deadline. According to chief engineer of MRSC North-West Georgij Turlov, the implementation of the developed program of renovation of equipment for electric grid of the North-West in the amount of 122.5 billion rubles for the period 2011-2020 year would reduce the wear and tear of equipment to an acceptable level. By now funding sources are identified, so the numbers are prognostic.
According to the repair program for 2011, in "Arkhenergo" in April was considered the program "Kotlas electrical network." On current projections, by 2011 only a third of all works will be performed by contractors.
Also, in the last three years the company «Windlife Energy BV» and its Russian branch of JSC "Uindlayf Arctic Power, implement the project of wind farms with capacity of 200 MW in the Murmansk region. As was reported in the press release of «Windlife Energy», the company took the final investment decision and issued a subsidiary in 2011 to work out a final agreement on the financing of «Avantis Europe GmbH». Installation of a wind farm is planned for 2011 - 2012 years. The wind farm should generate around 750 GWh of clean electricity annually. Ready wind farm could supply electricity to 190.000 households in Murmansk region.
Karelia: Project of the General layout of electric power facilities of the North-West Federal District, developed by RAO UES of Russia jointly with the Russian Ministry of Industry, up to 2020 in the Republic of Karelia envisages the construction of Beloporozhskoy HPP, Marine HPP, Segozerskoy HPP, as well as reconstruction and technical rearming of small HPPs, Petrozavodsk heat station in conjunction with the construction of new power lines voltage 330, 220, 110 and 35 kilovolts.
The first priority is to build a new power line of voltage 330 kV that will be parallel to the existing 330 kV "Kola - Kirishskaya TPP". This will compensate  the lack of power of Republican power. In the period 2009-2015's is planned to introduce 46 facilities in the territories Lahdenpohja, Suojarvsky, Pitkäranta, Sortavala, Prionezhsky, Kalevala, Pudozh Muezersky and municipalities. Total investments - 4.455 bln.
In accordance with the Agreement on cooperation between the Government of the Republic of Karelia, Petrozavodsk city administration and JSC "TGC-1» up to 2015, in Petrozavodsk city district's will be implemented investment program for the development of heat supply system of Petrozavodsk. Also is Planned reconstruction of the Petrozavodsk HPP and reconstruction of main heating networks. Investment will amount to 7,5 billion rubles.

The key to solving energy problems of the region - is the transformation of the Kaliningrad energy system in transitive, that will make possible to gain a competitive advantage in the Baltic region. "Kaliningrad energy should cease to be closed. Plans for the construction of new power generation will create a surplus and will provide significant export potential ", - said Energy Minister Sergei Shmatko. He believes that the growing regional economy will attract foreign investors and that will provide thousands of jobs and make the power of the Kaliningrad region of one of the most modern. "

In 2009 were completed the works on large investment projects in the energy sector; was launched the second stage of reconstruction of Naryan-Mar plant. For its implementation were directed funds in total - 237 million rubles. Bringing  of the facility has increased existing capacity on 18 MW. Dismantling of old gas turbines operating without sound insulation, will significantly improve the environment in a residential area.
Unfortunately, in 2009 recorded 40 cases of power outages, more than 60% of which goes to the autumn-winter period. The main cause of blackouts is a moral and physical deterioration of electrical switching apparatus, which leads to wrong actions of protecting automation. 
In 2009 the county produced oil, including gas condensate, 18.7 thousand tons. In comparison with 2008 figure for oil increased by more than 28%. The main increase in production provided Naryanmarneftegaz from industrial exploitation and the withdrawal of its design capacity of the South Khylchuyu oil and gas field, which produced more than 37% of the total oil production in the county. About 20% of the oil produced on the largest oil field in the region - Kharyaga, two mining companies: Lukoil-Komi and French JSC "Total Exploration and Development of Russia".
In mid-April at the compressor station Portovaya in Vyborg district, Leningrad region, took place a solemn ceremony of launching the construction of the Baltic Sea Nord Stream gas pipeline. This Pipeline will link Russian gas transport system and the European Union, and after 2,5 years it will provide about 25% of the additional needs of Europe in natural gas. Meanwhile, at the place from which Russian gas will go to sea travel to Germany, are only a few dozen square meters of concrete canvases. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev in his opening speech to participants of the event noted that on the project were carried out unprecedented preparations: "Frankly, I sometimes felt that it would never end. But it was over, and everything that is necessary was done to ensure reliability and safety of the project on the environment.” He stressed that the pipeline "Nord Stream" - a systematic project in energy dialogue of Russia and the EU, as evidenced by assigning it the special status of the Trans-European Network (TEN). The first seam welding of two pipes, one of which reads "Russia", on the other - "Europe" is made.

Author: Marina Sitnikova, EnergyLand.info

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